In the United Kingdom a July 19, cartoon, which appeared in the widely-circulated newspaper The Guardian , depicts Stars of David being used as a knuckle duster on a bloody fist to both punch a young boy and crush U. President George Bush. Commitment to Palestinian independence comes not from anti-Jewish prejudice but from a sense of justice and the need to redress grievances in what is increasingly seen as unfinished post-colonial business…. Many on the left are firm in their condemnation of racism and would almost certainly not accept that they were guilty of anti- Semitic discourse.
With about , Jews, France has the largest Jewish community living in Europe. A new anti-Semitism, attributing alleged abuses by Israel to Jews in general, to which some immigrants of Muslim background are particularly susceptible, appears to be the generator of most anti-Semitic incidents, as evidenced by the clear spike in anti-Semitic incidents whenever conflict in the Middle East flares up.
According to the EUMC Summary overview of the situation in the European Union , in France there is evidence of a shift away from extreme right-wing perpetrators of physical attacks on Jews and Jewish property toward young Muslim males. The early kidnapping and brutal murder of the French Jew Ilan Halimi by a gang of African Muslim immigrants heightened anxiety throughout most French Jewish communities. Part Two—Vehicles for Anti-Semitism.
If a regime, or some people, think they are God, they can have the right to make you animals or human. They can create you or kill you. And this is unbearable. So the only thing you can do—and the most subversive thing you can do—is to tell the truth. This is devastating because each time you come back with the truth, you deny their prerogative of creating a fictitious world where they can say whatever they want.
Iranian exile Ladan Boroumand, June 7, , speaking to the U. Government-sponsored anti-Semitism appears in various forms, including in government publications, speeches by leaders, government-controlled media, and discriminatory laws and practices. Government-sponsored anti-Semitism may also be revealed when governments take no effective action to condemn or combat anti-Semitism in the face of egregious anti-Semitic actions on their territory.
Actions by Heads of State and other Government Officials. State-sponsored anti-Semitism currently is most prevalent in, but not restricted to, parts of the Muslim world. In Iran since August , President Ahmadinejad has pursued a virulent anti-Israel campaign, including anti-Semitic propaganda and discrimination see Chapter 2. The Iranian regime hosted a Holocaust denial conference in Tehran December , Participants, including prominent anti-Semitic authors and Holocaust deniers, argued that the Holocaust did not occur or was an exaggeration used by Jews for political and financial gain.
They also called for the elimination or delegitimization of the state of Israel. In Venezuela , President Hugo Chavez has publicly demonized Israel and utilized stereotypes about Jewish financial influence and control. For example, in the context of the conflict between Hizballah and Israel, on August 25, in Beijing, and again in Doha three days later, President Chavez compared Israeli behavior to that of the Nazis. Senior government officials and political leaders around the world have made recent anti-Semitic comments as well.
In Russia , 20 members of the State Duma and hundreds of others in a January letter urged the Prosecutor General to investigate Jewish organizations for misconduct and initiate proceedings to ban them see Chapter 2. On February 4, the State Duma passed a resolution condemning the January 24 letter. In Iraq , in July , the Speaker of Parliament Mahmoud al-Mashhadani accused Jews of financing violent activity in the country to promote a Zionist sectarian agenda. In Kuwait , in the summer of , in the context of the Hizballah-Israel conflict, a Member of Parliament publicly launched an attack on Jews in which he cited The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion.
They are also playing with economic crises in countries like Bulgaria and getting rich. The European Parliament officially censured Giertych. Though most countries around the world do not have laws that explicitly discriminate against Jews, some non-democratic governments enshrine anti-Semitism in their laws and regulations.
In Syria , the government cited tense relations with Israel as the reason for barring Jewish citizens from employment in the civil service or serving in the armed forces, and for exempting them from military service obligations.
Arab & Muslim Anti-Semitism
Jews are the only religious minority group whose passports and identity cards note their religion. Syrian Jews also face extra scrutiny from the government when applying for licenses, deeds, or other government papers. In Iran , the government recognizes Judaism as a minority religion; however, Iranian Jews face frequent official discrimination, as do other non-Shiite Muslim religious minorities. Iranian Jews, along with other religious minorities, are prevented from serving in the judiciary and security services and from becoming public school principals or career military officers.
In addition, while not exclusively motivated by anti-Semitism, restrictions on religious freedom in some countries negatively impact Jews. For instance, in Saudi Arabia , religious freedom does not exist in general. Islam is the official religion of Saudi Arabia, and the tenets of that religion are enforced by law. Members of religions other than Islam, including Jews, are not permitted to practice their religion in public in The Kingdom. Additional country-specific information about religious discrimination and freedom issues can be found in the U. Both reports include detailed sections on anti-Semitism.
Anti-Semitism is pervasive in state-sponsored Arabic-language media and in state-sponsored media in Iran. In many Middle Eastern countries, there is limited or no freedom of the press and governments own or heavily influence the content of newspapers, television, and radio programs. Government stations host programs where anti-Semitic statements and ideas raised by guests or Imams go unchallenged. Such programs are beamed through satellite television stations to millions of living rooms throughout the broader Middle East and Europe.
These comments generally are focused on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Cartoons in Saudi Arabia typically use classic anti-Semitic imagery directed against Israel and make comparisons between the actions of the government of Israel and those of the Nazis. On April 24, , a cartoon in the Al-Medina newspaper depicted the treads of an Israel Defense Forces tank forming a swastika. In Saudi Arabia, Holocaust denial[ 25] is a common theme. A September 8, cartoon in Al-Watan depicted blood pouring out of an upside-down menorah.
Government-owned and -sponsored media in Saudi Arabia also published pieces alleging that the September 11, attacks were carried out by Jews, Zionists, or Israelis see Chapter 2. In Saudi Arabia, such writings generally were opinion or editorial pieces. In Egypt , editorial cartoons depict demonic images of Jews and Israeli leaders, stereotypical images of Jews along with Jewish symbols, and comparisons of Israeli leaders to Hitler and the Nazis. But the Jews, who escaped from oppression, oppressed the Palestinians…and thus, the victims of the old Nazis became the new Nazis On March 17, , the Egyptian government newspaper Al-Gumhuriyya published a cartoon depicting Uncle Sam symbolizing the United States being strangled by a Jewish serpent.
In Iran , similar anti-Semitic images are found in the national press. The queen is depicted as enslaving the masses. The advertisement was displayed in English and Arabic. In fall , the Iranian newspaper Hamshahri , which receives subsidies from the Iranian government, co-sponsored a Holocaust cartoon contest. The paper solicited submissions from around the world. The blocks bear sections of a photograph of the Nazi extermination camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau. The Marciano op-ed in the October 29, edition of the pro-government Diaro Vea accuses rabbis and Mossad agents of engaging in a conspiracy against President Chavez.
A Plena Voz , a monthly magazine published by the Minister of Culture which appears as an insert in Diaro Vea , carried several articles on the Hizballah-Israel conflict in August comparing Israel and its leadership to Hitler and Nazism. In Belarus , the Government allowed state enterprises to freely print and distribute anti-Semitic material.
According to the EUMC definition, anti-Semitism manifests itself with regard to the state of Israel when double standards are applied by requiring of Israel a behavior not expected or demanded of other nations. Motives for criticizing Israel in the UN may stem from legitimate concerns over policy, or from illegitimate prejudices. This report does not purport to ascribe motive to the various critics of Israel within the UN. However, regardless of the intent, disproportionate criticism of Israel as barbaric and unprincipled, and corresponding discriminatory measures adopted in the UN against Israel, have the effect of causing audiences to associate negative attributes with Jews in general, thus fueling anti-Semitism see Chapter 3.
Today, the distinction between legitimate criticism of the policies and practices of the State of Israel and anti-Semitism can become blurred in the UN context. The United States vetoed two proposed UN Security Council resolutions in addressing Israeli-Palestinian issues for their singling out Israeli actions for criticism, while failing to address similar behavior by others, and for their failure to appropriately address Palestinian obligations. In the past few years, Israel has become eligible to compete for election to UN limited membership bodies for vacant seats allocated to the WEOG; it has been elected to all bodies for which it has sought membership, including:.
In June , Israel was elected for the first time to serve as one of 21 Vice Presidents of the 60 th General Assembly. That said, Israel is the only UN Member State not allowed formal and active membership in any of the five regional groupings within the UN system—this status has the effect of legitimizing the patently false assertion that the Jewish State has engaged in behavior that violates the rights of others far more than any other state.
In recent years, there has been a significant trend in the General Assembly to adopt resolutions condemning traditional forms of anti-Semitism, including Holocaust denial see Chapters 2 and 7. However, in contrast to these positive efforts, the UN General Assembly, led by some countries, mainly from the G and non-aligned movement, has established bureaucracies with the sole mandate of singling out Israel as a violator of the human rights of others: The Division for Palestinian Rights established in ; the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People ; and the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and Other Arabs of the Occupied Territories These bodies and their staffs receive funding from within the regular UN budget assessed against all Member States.
No other Member State is singled out in this fashion. During that same period, only ten resolutions were adopted by these same bodies regarding the situations in North Korea, Burma, and Sudan. In fall , UNGA adopted two resolutions on the Palestinian people which solely blamed Israel for the then current conflict with no mention of Hamas shelling Israeli civilians or Hamas and Hizballah having kidnapped Israeli soldiers.
The votes in the General Assembly were overwelmingly in favor of both resolutions. Meanwhile, the dire situation in Sudan in which hundreds of thousands of civilians have been deliberately targetted did not merit a single focused resolution although one resolution on assistance to refugees in Africa did pass. Six of these sessions have been about Israel. Between and when it was disbanded in , the UN Commission on Human Rights passed 26 resolutions and one decision that were critical of Israel. The situations in North Korea, Burma, and Sudan warranted a combined total of 11 resolutions and decisions during the same period.
No other country beside Israel had an agenda item exclusively scrutinizing it. The United States voted against the resolution establishing the UNHRC due to concerns that it contained insufficient safeguards to ensure that states that are gross violators of human rights cound not become members. The new body has proven to be even more prone to protect serious violators of human rights and more prolific in its criticism of Israel than its predecessor.
Instead, the Council decided to end the scrutiny of notorious violators of human rights such as Belarus and Cuba given by the predecessor Commission, while expanding its scrutiny of Israel. The tragedy…is that all of this is taking place under the protective cover of the UN, undermining thereby the cause of the UN, international law and human rights. Other UN fora display a similar penchant for singling out Israel for scrutiny or criticism to which other states are not subjected.
Each of these resolutions was one-sided not even mentioning the other party involved in the conflict and outside the mandate of the respective organization. Israel is the object of far more investigative committees, special representatives, and rapporteurs than any other state in the UN system. At its annual assembly in Geneva in the World Health Organization passed a resolution by vote in favor, 7 against, and 12 abstentions on the health conditions of Palestinians, which was extreme in its criticism of Israel. The same session of the CSW saw fit to pass no resolutions at all on the international problem of honor crimes, female genital mutilation, rape as a weapon of war, and other serious abuses against women.
Many protestors held placards demonizing Israel, including signs equating Zionism with racism, accusing Israel of genocide, and comparing Israel to Apartheid. The event had three parts: a youth summit, a meeting of NGOs, and then the conference itself. The only panel on the 4-day NGO forum program that dealt with anti-Semitism was disrupted by anti-Semites. You are talking anti-Semitism. The conference culminated in the Durban Declaration in which Israel was the only country singled out for criticism. The resolution received the support of most participants. However, the United States and many other Western countries decried the effort to single out the State of Israel and, eventually, the United States delegation walked out of the main conference.
Israel denies that this is its intention or purpose. But such an intention or purpose may be inferred from the actions described in this report. It happens that not only one person, but the group, may forget. Forgetting means the end of civilization, the end of culture, the end of generosity, the end of compassion, the end of humanity. And therefore I celebrate memory, and I try to strengthen it. And I believe—I still do, in spite of everything—that memory is a shield.
If we remember what people can do to each other, then we can help those who tomorrow may be threatened by the same enemy. Private radio, television stations, and print media are among the most widely used vehicles for dissemination of anti-Semitic conspiracy theories and rhetoric. Some private media exist in the Middle East, and anti-Semitism is prevalent in them. In Qatar , the television satellite network Al-Jazeera, privately operated though funded by officials in the Qatari government, is unique in the pan-Arab media by regularly hosting Israeli guests and commentators.
However, the station also regularly hosts guests who viciously attack Israel and Jews alike, referring to traditional conspiracy theories, such as The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion , as unchallenged facts. In Algeria , anti-Semitic articles appear occasionally in the independent press, especially in Arabic-language newspapers.
One newspaper, El Fadjr , published throughout and a number of anti-Semitic political cartoons that highlighted close U. In the United Arab Emirates , anti-Semitic articles and cartoons sometimes are published. A December 22, Al-Bayan cartoon depicts a Jew playing with the globe, a reference to the anti-Semitic conspiracy theory that Jews control the world see Chapter 2. In Tunisia , privately-owned newspapers publish cartoons, on occasion, that use derogatory caricatures of Jews to portray the state of Israel and Israeli interests.
These cartoons all tend to be drawn by cartoonists outside the country. In Lebanon , the Hizballah-controlled television station Al-Manar has broadcast anti-Semitic programming. In Pakistan , some independent newspapers frequently publish articles that contain derogatory references to Jews and other religious minorities. In Turkey , Jewish community members report a significant rise in anti-Semitic language in newspapers and websites since the July Hizballah conflict with Israel.
Radio Maryja is owned by the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, and is financed through donations from its audience. In Russia , a number of small, radical-nationalist newspapers print anti-Semitic as well as anti-Muslim and xenophobic articles. The estimated number of xenophobic publications exceed , many sponsored by the local chapters of the National Power Party. Anti-Semitic articles have appeared in regional papers such as Stenogramma in the Komi Republic and the Orthodox Simbirsk in Ulyanovsk. In Belarus , anti-Semitic and Russian ultranationalist newspapers and literature, DVDs, and videocassettes continue to be sold at Pravoslavnaya Kniga , an Orthodox bookstore, which sells Orthodox literature and religious paraphernalia.
The store is part of the Khristianskaya Initsiativa company, the general director of which writes xenophobic articles. The store distributes the anti-Semitic and xenophobic newspaper Russkiy Vestnik despite a order by the Prosecutor General and the Ministry of Information to remove copies from the store. In Romania , anti-Semitic social elements republish inflammatory books from the interwar period.
In addition, one-sided anti-Semitic views and attitudes are expressed during Romanian talk shows broadcast by private television stations. Neo-Nazi groups, such as Stormfront, circulate their own anti-Semitic literature in Serbian. In Norway , articles, reports, and political cartoons that vilify and demean the Jewish people and community while minimizing the Holocaust have appeared in the mainstream media. Another caricature which appeared in the major Oslo newspaper Dagbladet in summer depicted Olmert as a Nazi death camp commander. While anti-Semitic depictions of Israel were especially common in Norway during the Hizballah-Israel conflict in summer , such images also predate it.
In Greece , in and , there were several instances of anti-Semitic articles or cartoons in the media see Chapter 2. The United States strongly supports the free flow of information and ideas on the Internet,[ 41] which holds enormous potential to promote freedom, tolerance, and human dignity. At the same time, the Internet also is a haven for anti-Semites and others who espouse hatred and intolerance. Generally, the Internet is an unrestricted and unregulated domain. Items can be posted anonymously and ideas can spread quickly.
The Internet also provides a convenient means for networking among individuals with extreme views who, in the past, might never have had the chance to communicate. Anti-Semitic websites are increasingly common. For instance, in Russia as of there were at least 80 websites disseminating anti-Semitic material. In Poland , there were more than [ 42] racist and xenophobic websites targeting Jews and other minorities , according to Never Again , an anti-racism organization based in Poland.
Hate-filled messages sent by email or posted in chat rooms are becoming common worldwide. They can originate anywhere and be received anywhere. Anti-Semites share messages among themselves. They also interject such messages into chat rooms or email sites specifically devoted to inter-religious dialogue, Jewish issues, or other civil discourse. For instance, in Austria , in summer , a flurry of postings and emails demanded that Jewish citizens apologize for the death of an Austrian peacekeeper killed during the conflict in Lebanon.
Anti-Semitic video games, most of which can be downloaded on the Internet, are increasingly common and turn racist violence into entertainment. Patterned after popular mainstream video games, such games can reach a wide, computer-savvy, young audience. Day of Defeat features battlefields decorated with swastikas and Nazi posters; in some games, a battle is signaled with a rousing call to arms broadcast in German. Ethnic Cleansing features a white supremacist who proceeds through 10 levels full of racist posters and symbols, gunning down caricatured Jews and other minorities.
Plans for world domination are seen in the subway and elsewhere. Kz Manager allows players to manage a concentration camp. The Internet sometimes has been used as a vehicle to target specific Jews. The site claimed that the Jews were conspiring to control the world.
It has power and reach, and it enters into the soft underbelly of the Western mind-set that does not like Jews or what Israel does to defend its right to exist. A counterattack is being organized….. We are at the beginning of a long intellectual and ideological struggle. It is not about Jews or Israel. The new anti-Semitism threatens all of humanity. The Jew-haters must not pass. Dennis MacShane, U. While a small number of governments have been inciting anti-Semitism, and others have failed to take action against it, many governmental efforts to combat anti-Semitism are underway.
Specific country examples of government efforts to combat anti-Semitism are well documented in the U. There also is comprehensive information on government legislation aimed at combating anti-Semitism collected by the OSCE www. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Some countries have appointed special envoys and special representatives to the Jewish community, including Jacques Huntzinger in France and Benedikt Haller in Germany.
Several countries have established rapporteurs that focus on domestic efforts to curb anti-Semitism. Laws can be among the most powerful tools for fighting anti-Semitism. Examples include: Creation of minority rights and legal protections that prevent discrimination; increased sentences for hate-motivated crimes; legally established commissions and agencies to counter racism, protect human rights, or fight discrimination, including against Jews; ombudsmen to address ethnic and minority issues; and strong laws against crimes linked to anti-Semitism, such as cemetery desecration.
Countries vary widely in their legal approaches to combating anti-Semitism. For instance, some countries enact prohibitions and impose criminal penalties on certain forms of anti-Semitic expression e. In other countries, including the United States, such measures would conflict with legal protections of the freedom of expression. Although there are significant country variations, a common approach to combating anti-Semitism is the prohibition of governmental and certain forms of private discrimination on the grounds of nationality, race, religion, and other factors.
Germany has been a leader in supporting Holocaust Remembrance. Morocco is built on tolerance. It is a perversion. The Holocaust is the worst crime against humanity throughout history. Babyn Yar should be that injection preventing aggressive bloody xenophobia. Like all Ukrainians, I refuse to accept and tolerate the slightest manifestation of xenophobia and anti-Semitism.
President Yushchenko speaking the following day at a conference to mark the 65th anniversary of the Babyn Yar massacre. Knowledge of history and education are the best instruments to prevent violence, which still is present in many parts of the world. International organizations have played a critical role in fighting anti-Semitism and other forms of intolerance. Smith and Bundestag Member Gert Weisskirchen, respectively, convened a special forum to highlight an increase in anti-Semitic violence.
In addition, the U. It passed unanimously. The conference resulted in the OSCE Ministerial meeting again addressing the problem by recommending that participating States actively collect data on hate crimes, including crimes motivated by anti-Semitism. Based in Warsaw, ODIHR has a mandate to support election observation, democratic development, human rights, tolerance and non-discrimination, and the rule of law throughout the OSCE region.
Secretary of State Colin Powell and other high government officials from the participating states addressed the conference.
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All reinforced the need for participating States to take steps to combat anti-Semitism and related intolerance. As part of these ongoing efforts, the OSCE also established a special position to combat anti-Semitism. The Personal Representative on Combating anti-Semitism serves an important liaison role, communicating reports of anti-Semitic incidents to political leaders, while maintaining a dialogue about anti-Semitism with OSCE governments. ODIHR also has been active beyond its data collection responsibilities, sponsoring international conferences addressing anti-Semitism and broader racism and xenophobia issues.
Upon the invitation of a participating State, the team will visit the requesting country and train police trainers on methods for indentifying and investigating hate crimes, including crimes motivated by anti-Semitism. FRA was established to collect reliable, objective and comparative data on racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism, and provide analysis, assistance and expertise to the European Union and its Member States as they implement EU laws pertaining to fundamental rights.
FRA works closely with civil society organizations to further its mission. The publicly available data and resulting analysis enable FRA to produce comparative reports and studies. The United Nations [ 45]. Since , the United Nations has taken important measures in the fight against anti-Semitism, including:. In , the UN General Assembly held an unprecedented session to commemorate the sixtieth anniversary of the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp.
The Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research consists of representatives of government, as well as governmental and nongovernmental organizations. The Task Force also works with countries to create programs that achieve these goals. Other international bodies also have made positive contributions to fighting intolerance, including anti-Semitism.
Although that increase has not been as marked in Latin America as in Europe and the Middle East, this does not mean that we can lower our guard against outbursts of hate crimes against Jewish communities and, in general, against any manifestation of racism and intolerance in the Americas. Chapter Eight—Private Groups and Individuals. NGOs have developed expertise on anti-Semitism and have been successful in monitoring the range and scope of the problem; educating others, including government agencies, on anti-Semitism and ways to address it; and advocating for victims and those at risk.
Local organizations often are best placed to identify and record anti-Semitic incidents on the ground.
Education takes many forms, including development of tolerance education curricula, distribution of literature, links to information on NGO websites, or hosting conferences on tolerance issues. Organizations actively support Holocaust education and other awareness-raising initiatives. NGO advocacy in the context of anti-Semitism often involves working with like-minded organizations and governments to promote minority rights, religious freedom, and oppose discrimination in all its forms.
Secular organizations are not the only players outside government in the fight against anti-Semitism. In recent years, the Roman Catholic Church has played a central role in efforts to stem anti-Semitism and support tolerance across religious lines. The Prayer for Peace is a successful interfaith gathering aimed at promoting dialogue and understanding among a wide array of religions. Organizers have had to work hard to overcome interfaith tensions, including some involving Israel and Judaism, and have succeeded in bridging these divides in many cases.
The Church has promoted the acceptance of and respect for Judaism, and has recognized that Christians have been complicit in anti-Semitic activity in the past. Some Protestant churches also have been involved in efforts to combat anti-Semitism. In the Muslim community there have been a number of admirable efforts to affirm the importance of tolerance and respect across religious lines. Soheib Bencheikh, the former Grand Mufti of Marseille, France has been a consistent, outspoken supporter of a tolerant Islam—despite strong opposition in Muslim communities at home and abroad.
In June , conferences addressing anti-Semitism-related concerns were held in Indonesia and Malaysia. Former Indonesian president Abdurrahman Wahid, who chaired the Bali conference, co-founded the LibforAll Foundation, an organization aimed at supporting tolerance among Muslims. Rabbis, Muslim leaders, Holocaust survivors, and victims of terrorist attacks in Israel and Bali were among the participants.
In fighting this disease, religious leaders have an essential role to play. In Morocco , the government organizes the annual Fez Festival of Sacred Music , incorporating music from Jewish, Christian, Hindu, and other religious traditions. During Ramadan in , King Mohammed VI hosted a colloquium of religious scholars that considered ways to encourage tolerance and respect between Islam and other religions. Morocco also is the only Arab nation with a Jewish museum, opened in in Casablanca. The Moroccan government also funds the study of Jewish culture and Hebrew at universities around the country.
In Tunisia , the government sponsors regular conferences and seminars on religious tolerance. Christian, Muslim, and Jewish representatives took part. The center will be financed by the Qatari government but will function as an independent entity. Its purpose will be to follow up on conference resolutions, papers, and studies, and engage local and international research centers and universities. Argentina has done much to promote interfaith dialogue.
In July , it also brought the Catholic, Muslim, and Jewish communities together to call for peace in the Middle East. While governments, NGOs, and religious and ethnic groups have important roles to play in efforts to combat anti-Semitism, individuals also actively stand against anti-Semitic bigotry, confronting hateful comments, challenging anti-Semitic myths, and responding to anti-Semitic incidents. Chapter One described some of the major reported contemporary anti-Semitic incidents against Jews and facilities used by Jews. Additional examples of anti-Semitic violence, abuse, property damage, and cemetery desecration follow.
This is by no means intended to be an exhaustive list, but, rather, an illustrative sampling. Most examples report on incidents that occur in Western democratic countries, which allow transparent monitoring of societal conditions. Information about anti-Semitic incidents in closed societies e.
Diplomacy in Action
More comprehensive information on anti-Semitic incidents can be found in the U. The purpose of this document is to provide a practical guide for identifying incidents, collecting data, and supporting the implementation and enforcement of legislation dealing with antisemitism. In addition, s uch manifestations could also target the state of Israel, conceived as a Jewish collectivity. Examples of the ways in which antisemitism manifests itself with regard to the state of Israel taking into account the overall context could include:. However, criticism of Israel similar to that leveled against any other country cannot be regarded as antisemitic.
Antisemitic acts are criminal when they are so defined by law for example, denial of the Holocaust or distribution of antisemitic materials in some countries. Criminal acts are antisemitic when the targets of attacks, whether they are people or property—such as buildings, schools, places of worship and cemeteries—are selected because they are, or are perceived to be, Jewish or linked to Jews. Antisemitic discrimination is the denial to Jews of opportunities or services available to others and is illegal in many countries. These reports can be found at Information about anti-Semitic incidents—as opposed to statements—in Iran largely is unavailable, particularly because NGOs and scholars reporting from Iran face intimidation.
None of the examples of abuse and intimidation in this section or in Appendix One reflect official support for or tolerance of anti-Semitism, as political leaders of the countries mentioned frequently speak out against anti-Semitic abuse and intimidation, and many governmental efforts to combat anti-Semitism are underway see Chapter 7. Since the time of publication of this cartoon, the Qatari press has reduced in frequency and severity its publication of anti-Semitic cartoons.
There are at least nine different Arabic translations of the Protocols and more editions in Arabic than in any other language. Arabic translations are prominently displayed in bookstores throughout North Africa and the Middle East, as well as Arabic-language bookstores in Western Europe. The Protocols also have been prominently displayed at international book fairs e.
In addition, the Protocols are so popular that they have inspired television broadcasts in Egypt, Syria, and other Arab states. In the past, Saudi textbooks reprinted sections and presented them as facts. Hamas and Hizballah also teach the Protocols as fact. The resolutions criticized Israel for collateral damage to civilian areas while ignoring deliberate targeting of civilians by the other side.
The resolution demands, among other things, that Israel pay the Palestinian Authority regularly and without delay, and halt all practices and policies that affect the health conditions of civilians under occupation. There is no acknowledgement that the Palestinian Authority could have some responsibility for the situation in Gaza. In addition, the Government of Canada disassociated from consensus.
Arab and Muslim Anti-Semitism
In contrast, the U. It instead refers to more recent declarations. Most notably, U. The United States takes the view that governments should whenever possible refrain from imposing restrictions or limitations on the freedom of expression. Search Input. Jump to In This Section. March 13, Department of State Dear Reader: Anti-Semitism is one of the oldest forms of malicious intolerance and violates the precepts of human dignity and equality that are fundamental to a free and peaceful society. Sincerely, Gregg J. Purpose of This Report The U.
Vehicles for Anti-Semitism , including national governments, the United Nations system, and societal groups. Methods for Combating Anti-Semitism , including actions by governments, international bodies, private groups, and individuals. For example: Since , the nation Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe OSCE has convened six major forums addressing anti-Semitism, at which national leaders underscored their commitment to combat anti-Semitism at home and abroad. Contemporary Forms of Anti-Semitism Contemporary anti-Semitism manifests itself in both overt and subtle ways, both in places where sizeable Jewish communities are located and where few Jews live.
Defining Anti-Semitism A widely accepted definition of anti-Semitism can be useful in setting the parameters of the issue. Contemporary examples of anti-Semitism in public life, the media, schools, the workplace, and in the religious sphere could, taking into account the overall context, include, but are not limited to: Calling for, aiding, or justifying the killing or harming of Jews in the name of a radical ideology or an extremist view of religion.
Making mendacious, dehumanizing, demonizing, or stereotypical allegations about Jews as such or the power of Jews as a collective—such as, especially but not exclusively, the myth about a world Jewish conspiracy or of Jews controlling the media, economy, government or other societal institutions. Accusing Jews as a people of being responsible for real or imagined wrongdoing committed by a single Jewish person or group, or even for acts committed by non-Jews. Denying the fact, scope, mechanisms e.
Accusing the Jews as a people, or Israel as a state, of inventing or exaggerating the Holocaust. Accusing Jewish citizens of being more loyal to Israel, or to the alleged priorities of Jews worldwide, than to the interests of their own nations. Examples of the ways in which anti-Semitism manifests itself with regard to the state of Israel taking into account the overall context could include: Denying the Jewish people their right to self-determination.
Using the symbols and images associated with classic anti-Semitism e. Drawing comparisons of contemporary Israeli policy to that of the Nazis. Holding Jews collectively responsible for actions of the state of Israel. From October 1, September 30, , there were reported anti-Semitic incidents. Source: Executive Council of Australian Jewry In Belgium , 66 reported incidents, the largest number of acts since , the first year anti-Semitic incidents were recorded as such.
Source: Stephen Roth Institute In Switzerland , reported anti-Semitic incidents: 73 in the German-speaking region, double the number from the previous year; and 67 in the French-speaking region, a decline from 75 in This number of reported incidents is more than any other year since , when statistics began to be kept. Source: Community Security Trust Descriptions of some of the major contemporary anti-Semitic incidents follow, including of terrorist attacks, violence, abuse, property damage, and cemetery desecration.
Terroris m Terrorist attacks and threats aimed at Jewish communities worldwide have been linked to Islamist terrorist groups, which, in the name of global jihad, have declared their intentions to attack Jews and Jewish targets. On October 25, , an Argentine Federal Special Prosecuting Unit investigating the bombing concluded that it was planned and financed by the government of Iran and carried out with operational assistance from Hizballah and local Iranian diplomats.
On March 15, , the Interpol Executive Committee recommended by consensus the issuance of international capture notices for six suspects wanted for the AMIA bombing. The Government of Iran appealed the decision. The synagogues were full of Sabbath congregants when the blasts went off; 29 people were killed, while hundreds more were wounded. A local organization influenced by, and under the aegis of, Al-Qaeda carried out the attacks.
AP Photo ] In Casablanca, Morocco , on May 16, , local adherents of the Salafiya Jihadiya movement with links to Al-Qaeda and other terrorist movements carried out four explosive attacks aimed at Jewish community institutions, killing 42 people—including several of the bombers—and wounding approximately others. Physical Attacks Worldwide anti-Semitic incidents include direct and violent attacks on Jews, sometimes leading to serious injury or death. On August 6, , Rabbi Nahum Tamrin and his wife Tzipora were attacked near the Zhytomyr synagogue; they required medical treatment for bruises and broken teeth.
In Melbourne , Australia , on August 18, , a year-old yeshiva student walking home from a kosher restaurant was assaulted by two men with baseball bats. In Moscow , Russia , on January 11, , a man entered a synagogue shouting anti-Semitic epithets and attacked worshippers with a knife during evening prayer, injuring nine people before being subdued. A month later, they left him in a field, naked and burned. He died on the way to the hospital. Property Damage Vandalism, which often is severe and premeditated, is another manifestation of anti-Semitism. In Geneva , Switzerland , on May 24, , the Hekhal Hanes synagogue was seriously damaged in a fire that police later ruled as arson.
In Berlin , Germany , on February 25, , a Jewish kindergarten was defaced with swastikas and other Nazi symbols and slogans. The perpetrators also threw a smoke bomb into the kindergarten, which did not ignite. AP Photo ] Cemetery Desecration While it sometimes is difficult to distinguish random vandalism from vandalism which has a distinct anti-Semitic intent, cemetery desecration is a specific form of property damage often targeted at the Jewish community.
In Ihringen , Germany , on August 12, , more than 70 gravestones were knocked over in the Jewish cemetery. The cemetery also was vandalized twice in the s. In Lille , France , in early April , some 50 Jewish gravestones were desecrated on the eve of Passover. The same Holocaust memorial was similarly vandalized in April ; swastikas and anti-Semitic epithets were scrawled in paint. Four thousand Jews were falsely accused of not reporting to work at the World Trade Center on September 11, , supposedly because they had been warned not to do so by those who had advance knowledge of the attack.
AP Photo ] In fact, long passages of the Protocols were plagiarized, word-for-word, from a book published in titled Dialogues in Hell between Machiavelli and Montesquieu , a work of political satire that did not have an anti-Semitic theme but was written to discredit Emperor Napoleon III of France. The Blood Libel According to the EUMC Working Definition of Anti-Semitism , examples of the ways in which anti-Semitism manifests itself with regard to the State of Israel include using the symbols and images associated with classic anti-Semitism, such as blood libel, to characterize Israel or Israelis.
Blood libel charges now are fairly uncommon in Europe, but still occur: In Russia , in January , some persons, including 20 State Duma members, publicly made a blood libel charge in a letter that accused Jews of participating in ritual murder of Christians. According to the EUMC definition, regardless of the motive, anti-Zionist and anti-Israel criticism become anti-Semitic when they entail: Denying the Jewish people their right to self-determination, Applying double standards to Israel, Using the symbols and images associated with classic anti-Semitism to characterize Israel or Israelis, Drawing comparisons of contemporary Israeli policy to that of the Nazis, or Holding Jews collectively responsible for actions of the state of Israel.
Actions by Heads of State and other Government Officials State-sponsored anti-Semitism currently is most prevalent in, but not restricted to, parts of the Muslim world. Religious Discrimination and Freedom Issues Though most countries around the world do not have laws that explicitly discriminate against Jews, some non-democratic governments enshrine anti-Semitism in their laws and regulations. State-Sponsored Media Anti-Semitism is pervasive in state-sponsored Arabic-language media and in state-sponsored media in Iran.
AP Photo ] In fall , the Iranian newspaper Hamshahri , which receives subsidies from the Iranian government, co-sponsored a Holocaust cartoon contest. Blatant anti-Semitism in the state-sponsored media is not just a Middle Eastern phenomenon. United Nations General Assembly In recent years, there has been a significant trend in the General Assembly to adopt resolutions condemning traditional forms of anti-Semitism, including Holocaust denial see Chapters 2 and 7.
P ublishing and Broadcasting Private radio, television stations, and print media are among the most widely used vehicles for dissemination of anti-Semitic conspiracy theories and rhetoric. The Internet The United States strongly supports the free flow of information and ideas on the Internet,[ 41] which holds enormous potential to promote freedom, tolerance, and human dignity. For example: Day of Defeat features battlefields decorated with swastikas and Nazi posters; in some games, a battle is signaled with a rousing call to arms broadcast in German.
Under Ash involves the mass killing of Israelis and Jews.
Member of Parliament and Chair of the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Anti-Semitism , September 4, Government Efforts While a small number of governments have been inciting anti-Semitism, and others have failed to take action against it, many governmental efforts to combat anti-Semitism are underway. Volumes have been written detailing in admiring terms every move by Weizmann and his colleagues to persuade the British elite of the Zionist objective.
But the British agonized over it remarkably little, considering it their prerogative to give the land of a people they considered to be of an inferior race to people that Balfour and his colleagues believed formed an inassimilable race. It is revealing that Lord Balfour, the architect of the anti-Semitic Aliens Act, devised to keep Britain closed to Jews fleeing from Russian pogroms, is honored by having a street in Tel Aviv named after him.
J: Who do you hope will read this book, and what sort of impact would you like it to have? The French sociologist Maurice Halbwachs, a founding figure of the study of collective memory, made the point that if an event is not fixed in the public consciousness when it occurs, it is unlikely to be recalled in later years.
In , the left, which usually championed the cause of the victims of imperialism, was silent on the Palestinians; the refugees were largely forgotten until the New Left began to recall what had happened and to develop solidarity with the Palestinian national movement. The pro-Israeli lobby would like to make people believe that to focus on Israel is itself anti-Semitic because many other states also commit injustices.
But this ignores the special connection that the West has with the Israeli state and therefore the possibility for us to do something about it. Israel is an integral part of the US-EU power bloc and it is a link where we can be effective. It is not pro-Palestinian campaigners who have made Israel into a special case, when Israel enjoys impunity even under the international laws that have been drafted mainly by the Western powers. J: How do you see your focus on the history of the relationship between the British Left and Zionism as potentially contributing to current debates in Britain and beyond?
It would not be possible for Israel to bomb the people of Gaza if they were white Christians. From the s to the late s, the struggle to defeat South African apartheid developed in tandem with the American civil rights movement and anti-racist struggles throughout Western capitalist societies. At stake in these struggles was how black and white peoples were to relate to each other in the post-colonial world order. Enoch Powell and Margaret Thatcher felt this keenly. Now, too, the anti-racist struggle has to battle on two principal and connected fronts: on the one hand, against Islamophobia, the dominant form of racism in the world because it is promoted by the most powerful states; and, on the other, against Western imperial power, in which Israel plays a front-line role in the Middle East.
What happens in Palestine will be important in defining relations between the Muslim and Western worlds for many decades. The anti-apartheid movement helped to dismantle the Bantustans of South Africa and establish equality in principle, though its implementation is incomplete, and now progressive people around the world have to build a pro-Palestinian movement that will dismantle the apartheid system being developed by Israel.
J: Do you foresee any change coming from the British Labour party in terms of its attitude to Israel and Palestinian self-determination? PK: Among the party membership, sympathy has decisively swung from Israel to the Palestinians, but part of the New Labour project was to reverse this trend.
They believed that good relations with the leadership of the Jewish community would help their broader ambition of improving their standing in the City and the wider business world. But it proved to be the reverse. A Miliband government will also seek to please the US. What could, however, decisively change British and EU Middle East policy, irrespective of which parties are in power, is strong public pressure for imposing sanctions on Israel.
The BDS campaign is important. It is building popular support for sanctions without which Israel will not change and more wars will follow. The picketers achieved a certain amount of international attention, however, in , when their action directed against orange groves north of Jaffa led to violent clashes with Palestinian workers.
The last remaining garden restaurant that has been open to Jews has now been closed to them. Jews are not admitted to the swimming baths. For the Zionist movement, the Nazi measures against Jews in Germany were further justification for ensuring the availability of employment for Jews in Palestine though it also involved discrimination on the basis of ethnicity.